Tom Jago: The Passing of an Industry Icon

The Dean Of Global Spirits

This is from The Last Drop Distillers, a company that Tom co-founded:

It is with profound and heartfelt sadness that we announce the death of our co-founder and inspirational president, Tom Jago, aged 93. Beloved by us all, we give thanks for his brilliance, his incisive humour and, above all, his deep affection for the team and the industry he so loved. Rest in peace, Tom.

Tom Jago. 21st July 1925 – 12th October 2018

There is no one I have met in my booze business journey that I respected more than Tom. He was a true gentleman, a creative genius, and a warm, fun, person. I wrote his story in this blog and in my book and I thought it would be worth re-telling as my personal tribute to a terrific man and friend.

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I first met Tom Jago in the early 1990s when he was part of James Espey’s scotch and cognac team at Seagram. My immediate reaction was, here is a man who is gifted in product development and marketing. He’s also affable and fun to be with. I’m not sure he’s really British.

Over the years he taught me a great deal about the spirits business, above all, how to choose and enjoy good Claret (Bordeaux).

Together with Dr. Espey and Mr. Peter Fleck, he is a principal in the Last Drop Distillers Ltd. (The full story of the company is here.)

Here’s how their website describes Tom:

From a village school in the remote countryside, via a scholarship to Oxford and service in the Royal Navy during WWII, Tom Jago found his niche in the wine and spirits trade.  He led the team that developed new ideas on old themes, like Croft Original Pale Cream Sherry and Le Piat D’Or brands, which revolutionised British drinking habits forever. He cooperated with the ‘gang of three’ in the invention of Bailey’s Irish Cream and Malibu.

But wait, there’s more. Tom was instrumental (as in the driving force) in such brands as Johnnie Walker Blue Label, Hennessy, Chivas Regal 18 Year Old, Martell, The Classic Malts and many others.

If that’s not enough, while at Seagram, Tom helped in the creation of Imperial Blue and Royal Stag, now an important part of Pernod India.

In preparation for this article, I’ve spent some time talking and emailing with Tom on a range of topics and his thoughts on the industry.

Tom’s Career

After the war, Tom “slipped accidentally into advertising.” He applied for a job as a photographer but was mistaken for someone else and got a job as a copywriter. He later became an account director at an ad agency that ultimately became Ogilvy & Mather. Among his accounts was a small company that hired him, called Gilbeys. Through mergers and acquisitions, Gilbeys became IDV and finally Diageo.

Next came four years at Moet-Hennessy, followed by United Distillers (with James) and later Seagram.

The area of focus throughout his career was innovation and new products. As Tom puts it, “I was not very good at being a marketing director (at Gilbeys) so they gave me a small budget, an office and secretary and said try and think of some new drinks we might profitably sell.” The string of successes mentioned earlier, attest to the accomplishments.

Product Development Philosophy

Tom Jago’s focus over the years has been simple, and straightforward, guiding principles.

First, “Make the drink agreeable to the palate, the eye and the nose. Baileys and Malibu are good examples of this.”

The other principle was to develop products that inherently persuade drinkers that there is virtue in drinking them and in learning to appreciate their quality. Interestingly, it’s the same motivations of palate, eyes and nose but applied to whisky, cognac and even tequila.

But above all, Tom has a powerful way of looking at the acceptance and growth of a brand – patience.

“It is clear to me that the motivation to drink alcohol is very deeply buried in the human subconscious… therefore, attempts to market distilled spirits must be subtle too. A spirits brand is bound to be slow growing, so promotions must be long, steady and consistent.”

In my experience, new products and brands often fail because the companies behind them, particularly the global ones, lack the fortitude to see them through to fruition. That’s why the successes in the US (e.g., Grey Goose, Tito’s, and Patron) have come from entrepreneurs.

Another interesting and worthwhile notion from Tom is not to let drinker research get in the way. “It is of course useful, but in the specific case of alcohol drinks, not to be relied on, given the essential illogical responses of people to alcohol,” says Tom. He goes on to say, “No one will tell you the truth about their feelings regarding drinks – mainly because they don’t know what they are themselves.”

I tend to put it another way. Consumer research is like a lamppost, some people lean on it while others are illuminated by it.

Whisky

Despite the drink inventions that favor light, sweet and palatable drinks, Tom is an unabashed devotee of Malts.

“These are, I must confess, my favourite of all the alcoholic drinks… I admire them partly because of their enormous variety of nose and taste (cognac, no matter how fine, all tastes much the same – compared with the vast difference between a malt from Islay and one from the Spey). Much of their appeal, of course, lies in their relative rarity – the amateur can ‘discover’ them for himself, so he feels that he owns a part of the brand. It is interesting that when a malt gets as big (in volume sales) as for instance Glenfiddich or the Glenlivet, people stop thinking of it as a malt, rather as just another Scotch brand.

His focus on whisky over the years has been extraordinary. Johnnie Walker Blue Label was created in 1987 to reassert the perceived value of the Johnnie Walker brand in Asia, where grey market discounting had damaged it. He also developed Classic Malts, a collection of outstanding products from individual malt distilleries, which became brands.

At his current venture, Last Drop Distillers Ltd, he and his partners are using 70 single malts in their blend. Some are from distilleries long since closed. It’s truly an amazing venture and you might want to look it up. (Today, The Last Drop Distillers is owned by Sazerac Limited.)

Throughout his career, Tom helped to define and advance product quality. While at Hennessy, for example, he learned about the sophisticated use of oak in spirit maturation. No one in the scotch business knew about this at the time and one can only imagine the battles that ensued between this young upstart and the tough and crusty old timers who ran the whisky production.

Perhaps based on these battles or just plain good common sense, Tom taught me to be wary of production managers.

“A word of caution concerning those splendid fellows…Don’t let them ruin a great luxury brand by economy measures unrelated to the essential perceived value of the pack; I have seen a production man try to save less than a penny by spoiling the closure of Johnnie Walker Blue Label – this on a brand that sells for £100.”

India

In the late nineties, while at Seagram, Tom was called to Seagram India to help with new product development. One of the chemists, had the idea of making a good admix whisky by using both imported scotch malt and local grain spirit. The resulting products were successful and have stood the test of time – Royal Stag and Imperial Blue. As Tom puts its it, a number of factors accounted for the success – branding, packaging, price (above the competition) and the unique use of TV advertising outside of India.

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Tom Jago was indeed a man for all seasons and the most extraordinary spirits marketer I’ve ever met.

Industry executives, both young and old, can learn a great deal from his business strengths and skills – innovation and outside the box thinking; patience and tenacity; an understanding of people; how to build brands and the price/value relationship in marketing. Above all, Tom has a skill set all executives need, but not all have – a sense of humor.

Side Bar

What I love about the spirits and wine business is that it’s an industry of people, relationships and stories. No one I’ve met has better industry tales than Tom Jago.

Vodka

Real change began in 1949 when a Mr. Kunett, a Russian émigré in the USA, sold his tiny Smirnoff distillery to Heublein. At the time he was making about 5,000 cases a year. He and Heublein began seriously to promote vodka as the spirit with negligible taste, which mixed with fruit juice, tomato juice, or even ginger beer, to give a drink that was actually NICE. So vodka drinking spread to the civilised world (in Russia, it was never that civilised, the vodka was always sold in 50cl bottles with an aluminum capsule – non-reclosable!)

I was closely involved in this period of change. From 1957 I had been helping an old drinks merchant called Gilbeys with their advertising.

Gilbeys had been smart enough to get the rights to Smirnoff vodka for a large part of the world, so we were engaged in promoting vodka – which was entirely unknown in Britain. We began to understand the revolution that was taking place, although research produced some unexpected results: we used an ad showing young men in their digs preparing for a party. One of them was cleaning his teeth; the advertisement was badly understood, and it emerged after a few enquiries that only some 12% of young English males owned a toothbrush!

And when we claimed that Smirnoff doesn’t give you a hangover, we got the response “What’s the point of having a drink if you don’t get a hangover?” Binge drinking is nothing new, it seems.

About Gilbeys:

There was lots of fun to be had at Gilbeys. In the first place they owned a beautiful chateau in the Medoc (Chateau Loudenne), which I used as a cool place to plot things with co-workers. The cellar had first growths from 1875 on.

And board meeting were delightful on occasion. Walter Gilbey said one day, “Tom, I just got a lift back on Hennessy’s little jet – ever so nice. Do you think we might get one?” I said I thought it unlikely but would search and report back. Next week I said “we can’t afford it; costs £2m and that’s about our overdraft. And anyway, you would have two pilots to feed and clothe.”

“Oh,” said young Walter, “Couldn’t Hawkins learn to drive it?”

The joy of this was that Hawkins, an old family retainer, was 56, a serious drunk, and only worked one day a year when he drove the Gilbeys to Royal Ascot race meeting in the coach and four.

Product Placement in Films:

James Bond was in part my baby. I was with Gilbeys in the ‘60s and they had the franchise for Smirnoff in what used to be the British Empire. When Cubby Broccoli (Albert Broccoli, the producer of the Bond films) was rounding up funds for Dr. No he approached Gilbeys and got a flea in his ear; they were broke, in fact. But one of them told me and I persuaded them to let me give him two cases (one blue label 100 proof, the other red, 37.5) I said I hoped that they could include both in the film, and they agreed, with the great scene where Bond rejects the red and makes his martini with the stronger vodka. When I asked for a few more cases for their wind-up party to which I was told to get lost – no more money. So we lost the chance to be in all the Bond films. No money changed hands.  Times change, huh?

And when I was down at Pinewood negotiating this, I lunched in the canteen with Terence Young (director); at the next table was Ava Gardner. She took a mouthful of steak and salad, drew deeply on her Camel, and started chewing. Never forgot that.

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Alcohol vs. Cannabis Marketing

Seth Godin on the Differences Between the Two

I have followed Seth Godin for many years and have found him to be among the most insightful marketers I know. Here’s a bit about him — he’s an author (18 bestselling books), an entrepreneur (founded two companies, one of which was sold to Yahoo), a speaker/teacher, and a member of both the Direct Marketing Hall of Fame and the Marketing Hall of Fame (probably the only person to be in both). Above all, his views and ideas on effective marketing have inspired, motivated, and changed people and ways of looking at things.

One of his blog posts last week dealt with the differences between marijuana and alcohol marketing. Considering the close scrutiny of the pot business by the booze industry, I asked and received his permission to share most of his blog post with you.

Let’s look at Seth’s views followed by my comments.

(By the way, as I write this, it was just announced that Constellation Brands has increased its investment in a Canadian cannabis company by $4 billion.) 

US prohibition ended in 1933. After that, there was a gold rush that led to the creation of dozens of billion dollar brands.

80 years later, the prohibition against pot is ending in various places throughout North America and then, probably, worldwide.

The question some professional marketers are asking is: Will there be worldwide profitable brands for pot that are similar to Bacardi, Johnnie Walker and Smirnoff for alcohol?

Both industries are regulated. Both have products that are sold in specialty stores. Both use non-proprietary manufacturing techniques.

Here’s the big difference:

When alcohol marketing became legal, it coincided with the glory days of magazines, radio and then TV. The mass marketing phenomenon happened at exactly the same time as these brands were being rolled out—and along with cigarettes, alcohol brands were major advertisers, particularly in magazines (liquor) and TV (beer). The ads supported the media in a fundamental way (and vice versa–Rick’s Cafe anyone?).

But when cannabis marketing arrives, it’s the internet that’s dominant. And the internet isn’t a mass medium.

It seems like one. It’s used by billions of people.

But it’s a micro medium. A direct marketing medium. There are 3 billion people online, but they’re busy looking at 3,000,000 web pages (that’s only a thousand a page).

The other difference is that there’s a thousand-year tradition of the pub and the bar. And those facilities offer status games, word of mouth and significant margins that created another marketing engine for alcohol that won’t exist for cannabis.

Sure, it’s possible that the huge demand and profit margins will fund a winner-take-all advertising movement for pot. But it’s more likely to be more like local espresso or high-end chocolate or whiskey (word of mouth) and less like vodka.

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My Comments and Observations

  1. Seth is obviously on target; the overall world of marketing has steadily been moving from macro to micro — away from mass media toward direct to consumer media. To a large extent this is happening in the booze business today. Brand building and communication has left mass approaches (print as well as broadcast) in favor of word-of-mouth, bartender influence, publicity and event marketing.
  2. Let’s not forget that currently, the cannabis industry is totally on a state by state basis. There are no national brands and there will not be until such time as the federal government approves its sale. Marketing, therefore, is regional, at best.
  3. The notion that the absence of bars and restaurants for cannabis will inhibit marketing is true now but will it be in the future? In many of the legal recreation use states, weed cafes are springing up and it’s a topic that will grow in the future. Think Bulldog Café in Amsterdam.
  4. As to branding, that too is emerging. Consider this:
  • For many cannabis consumers, the content and type are surrogates for brands. They talk about Indica vs. Sativa. For others, it’s the amount of CBD vs THC that becomes the brand.
  • For those introduced to weed medicinally, they think of the brand the same way as branding in prescription drugs — by function.
  • In this regard, recreational users have the function/purpose of the cannabis as an identifier, such as “sleep,” “arouse,” “harmony,” “awake,” etc. These are clearly labeled and provide a kind of branding function.
  • There are brands like Dompen, LuxLyte and others. But the function/purpose is the main factor.
  1. At this stage, it’s the retailer that becomes the brand. Check out the list of retailers in Colorado. A company I wrote about recently, MedMen, has stores all over the country, both dispensing medicinal cannabis as well as recreational. The dispensary is the source of quality and other reassurances.
  2. Interestingly, the beer folks are getting into alcohol infused cannabis, partly leveraging their own brand’s influence. There’s even a brand of wine made with THC.

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As of June, of this year, 30 states have legalized medical marijuana and 9 have approved recreational use. New Jersey and New York are expected to legalize recreational use soon. So, clearly, legalization of cannabis is here to stay and will grow in acceptance.

The key marketing issue will be, as Seth points out, the difficulty in mimicking branding (and reach) of the alcohol world. Perhaps that means that no one brand will predominate; perhaps the function/purpose will be the brand; or the retailer. But, it’s still earlier days for the fledgling legal business.

He’s also correct that the marketing of cannabis, despite other similarities with booze, will have its own model and pattern.

Like the man says, more like whisk(e)y and less like vodka.

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Amazon, Malfy Gin, and Building a Brand

First, an Update:

Last Friday, Wine and Spirits Daily reported that Mark Teasdale, CEO of Proximo Spirits is leaving to join Biggar & Leith, the company Founded by Elwyn Gladstone that markets Malfy Gin and Spytail Rum. Mark and Elwyn have previously worked together at Proximo and William Grant and collaborated on such new brands as Kraken Rum and Hendrick’s Gin, among many others.

I learned of this development after I wrote this article and it adds immensely to the story. Both these folks are top of the game spirits industry players. And, as you will see, Elwyn has already been doing amazing things with Malfy. So, this change builds on success and gives the company an even more important presence in the industry.

Leveraging the Power of Amazon and Direct-to-Consumer Sales

Malfy Con Limone Gin (the original product) is made in Italy from the luscious lemons of the Amalfi coast under the marketing and sales guidance of Elwyn, whose background includes senior positions at large spirits companies. (The original story on Elwyn and Malfy can be found here.)

I was wondering how Elwyn, with his large company experience, was making out with his fledging startup brand. So, last month, I checked in with him. He is, after all, one of the most creative and smart marketers I know. Could he transfer his skills honed at large spirits companies to a startup? In particular, I wanted to know how the brand was received by distributors. Would he get the same attention with Malfy as he got with Hendrick’s?

Little did I know when I reached out to Elwyn, that this journey is most unusual and a case study on how to beat the system and build a brand despite obstacles.

How is Malfy Doing?

After only just a few years in the market, the brand is on track to do over 185,000 6-pack cases in the US and around the world — the UK, other European markets, South and Central America, South Africa and elsewhere. He has lots of room to grow geographically and his re-order rates are impressive.

In the US, the brand is among the top 10 Super-Premium Gin in Nielsen (brands that cost more than $25 per bottle) growing at over 300% and on track to hit a top 5 position. The brand is distributed by Infinium Spirits in the US, and based on the aforementioned, I’d say they are paying attention to the brand.

He has also introduced a range of gin products. The US has the first launched Con Limone, and recently introduced Originale, a traditional gin. Outside the US, the Malfy Gin line also includes Gin Rosa, a Sicilian pink grapefruit gin, and Con Arancia, gin made with Sicilian blood oranges. He and Infinium Spirits will introduce these other gin line extensions in July.

That’s only part of the story—enter Amazon

It is fairly common for a new brand to look to the rest of the world (especially Europe) as a way to build a brand and generate sales, while waiting for the US market to wake up. What happens is that an importer is contacted, who probably has a stable of brands, and the wait for growth traction overseas becomes another frustration.

But not for Elwyn and Malfy Gin. I asked him, “How come you’re doing so well in the UK?”

The answer? Amazon and direct-to-consumer sales.

According to Elwyn, “The absence of a mandatory 3-tier system coupled with a robust purchase and delivery system creates a strong platform for direct to drinker sales. But, more important, Amazon provides the opportunity for the brand owner to use all sorts of marketing efforts and truly remain the guardian of their brand.”

In the UK and Germany, he is selling over 1,000 bottles per month and growing.

Let’s take a closer look at Amazon and liquor sales.

But, first, let’s cover a few noteworthy things about Amazon and spirits:

  • As I’m sure you known (but for those who don’t) Amazon does not sell direct to consumers in the US. They tried to with wine but that ended when they acquired Whole Foods.
  • Outside the US, it is the importer who sells to Amazon, but in Elwyn’s case, he has been the driving force influencing importers to use Amazon.
  • The markets where Amazon is currently selling booze are limited to the UK, Germany, Spain and Italy. But they are rapidly opening other markets.

 

Amazon — distributor and retailer

If you talk to US distributors about Amazon, you’ll hear two views, a public and private one.

The expected and public view is, “Nobody ever built a brand on Amazon.” That’s currently true but, certainly, brand building overall in the US has changed and, for fledgling brands, the growth comes from the consumer themselves, more than the trade. That’s why privately, many distributors express concern about direct sales in general and Amazon in particular.

Recommendations from bartenders and store people are important but so is word-of-mouth among drinkers themselves. As to Amazon’s role here, Elwyn suggests,

“Think of Amazon’s product page as the world’s most efficient shelf-talker and neck-tag information booklet… including reviews from hundreds of consumers, press and PR, recipes, photos, and more. And, let’s not forget the simple star ratings based on thousands of people.”

Clearly, Elwyn has spent quite a bit of time trying to understand Amazon and its power to build and sell spirits brands so I asked him to further share his marketing and sales thoughts. After all, Malfy has become a top 10 best-selling gin, surpassing many household name brands including Hendrick’s.

Here is what he has learned about the power of Amazon and the role of the internet in general:

  1. The brand owner is in control. Once establishing your ownership with Amazon, you can appoint people who can manage the site/sales, but the brand is firmly in your hands.
  2. Brand sales drivers. Of course, product credentials (brand name, packaging, etc.) are important but Amazon also allows an owner to:
  • Put up consumer reviews, so that the more frequent and better the review, the higher the brand appears in searches.
  • Use key words, that also drive how well a brand does in searches on Amazon.
  • Advertise via sponsored ads.
  • The use of brand photos, which is a huge driver and there are ways to test which photographs work best.
  1. Sales data. Amazon in the UK provides easily accessible data on brand sales ranking for all brands within a given category.
  2. A level playing field. This is ideal for smaller brands inasmuch as the big boys cannot muscle them out as they can in stores with multiple facings, optimum shelf space and, well, plain old clout.
  3. More effective promotions. Amazon provides quicker and easier ways to manage and measure the impact of promotional activities.
  4. Tastings are more cost effective. The current approach at retail can easily cost $200 per session and the reach is limited. Amazon offers the opportunity to purchase sample boxes so consumers can buy a bunch of miniatures. It’s also a better use of the brand owner’s time than standing around a retail store doing tastings.
  5. Enhanced recommendations and word of mouth. According to Elwyn, the Amazon approach may just surpass a recommendation from a bartender or store-keeper. (See the earlier comment about the Amazon page strengths.)
  6. Making it easier to reach the on-premise trade. Those of you involved in the bar trade can relate what a nuisance it is to order a new brand from a startup. Amazon provides the ability to order any brand listed, including a single bottle

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In sum, the Amazon — non-USA — platform is a powerful brand building and sales device. The brand owner stays in complete control, the tools available can provide an effective means for reaching a very wide audience, all efforts and expenditures are easily tracked and effectiveness measured, and, it is amazingly cost effective.

It is, of course, interesting to speculate whether the US will eventually go this way and create the same opportunities for the small producer as in Europe. My answer is NO, we have a 3-tier system, which is unlikely to go away, and direct-to-consumer transactions remain difficult if not impossible.

Elwyn Gladstone’s approach to building his overall and global brand business is incredibly sound both strategically and tactically. While he overcomes obstacles and patiently waits for the US business to take hold, he is leveraging the available resources outside the US to provide the wherewithal to help and to build his brand in the rest of the world.

I told you he was smart.

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Elwyn Gladstone

My thanks to Elwyn Gladstone for taking the time to share his efforts and thinking with me for this article.

I’d love to hear your thoughts in the comments section at the very end of this article or in an email to arthur@boozebusiness.com

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